Timeline of the internet
The History of the Internet can be traced back to the launch of Sputnik in 1957. The United States desired to stay ahead in the technology race with the Soviet and protect itself against spaced –based nuclear attack. USA created the ARPA agency for this purpose. The potential of a country-wide communications network began its inception and indeed was brought to life.
Interface Message Processor, a special computer, was developed to realize this new design, and the ARPANET went live on 29th of October 1969 with the first communications between the University of California and the Stanford Research Institute.
1969: The first message
The first message was ‘LOG’. It was meant to be ‘LOGIN’ but the system crashed with the enormous computation of the letter G.
Today’s web servers and web hosting services still use an operating system who’s design is greatly influenced but the Unix which was conceived in the late 60s.
Ray Tomlinson developed and sent the first email message. He also decided to use the @ sign to distinguish between messages addressed to mailboxes in the local machine and messages that were headed out onto the network. “The @ sign seemed to make sense,” he recalled. “I used the @ sign to indicate that the user was ‘at’ some other host rather than being local.”
1971: Storage and the beginning of eBooks
Michael Hart came to an incredible realization that was the start of Project Gutenberg. A site that makes books and documents available electronically and for free.
His realization was that the future of computers was more in storage, searching and finding information that was usually only available at libraries.
1972: French Internet
It was called Cyclades but it was eventually shut down.
1973: across the sea
The University College of London and Arpanet made its first connection.
1973: who knew email would be so popular
Email accounted for 75% of all Arpanet activity.
1974: The beginning of an inter-network
A breakthrough year. A proposal was published to link Arpa-like networks together to form an inter-network. It would have no central control and would work around a transmission control protocol.
1975: Forward and reply
The first modern email program was developed by John Vittal, a programmer at the University of Southern California. The biggest technological advance this program made was the addition of “Reply” and “Forward” functionality.
1977: The PC modem introduced
Developed by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington
1978: Spam is born
Unsolicited commercial email message, later known as spam, was sent out to 600 California Arpanet users by Gary Thuerk.
1979: MUD – the first multiplayer games
Called MUD which is short for MultiUser Dungeon. MUDs were entirely text-based virtual worlds, combining elements of role-playing games, interactive, fiction, and online chat.
Usenet was an internet-based discussion system that aloud people from across the globe to discuss topics. A formal chat group.
1982: The first emoticon
-) by Kevin MacKenzie
🙂 by Scott Fahlamn
1983: Arpanet computers switch over to TCP/IP
January 1, 1983 was the deadline for Arpanet computers to switch over to the TCP/IP protocols developed by Vinton Cerf. A few hundred computers were affected by the switch. The name server was also developed in ’83.
1984: Domain Name System (DNS) is created
The domain name system was important in that it made addresses on the Internet more human-friendly compared to its numerical IP address counterparts. DNS servers allowed Internet users to type in an easy-to-remember domain name and then converted it to the IP address automatically.
1988: IRC – Internet Relay Chat
This paved the way for real-time chat and the instant messaging programs we use today.
1988: First worm
Referred to as “The Morris Worm”, it was written by Robert Tappan Morris and caused major interruptions across large parts of the Internet.
1989: AOL is launched
When Apple pulled out of the AppleLink program in 1989, the project was renamed and America Online was born. AOL, still in existence today.
1989: The proposal for the World Wide Web
Written by Tim Berners-Lee. It was written to persuade CERN that a global hypertext system was in CERN’s best interest. It was originally called “Mesh”.
1990: Arpanet ceased to exist.
1990: World Wide Web protocols finished
The code for the World Wide Web was written by Tim Berners-Lee, based on his proposal from the year before, along with the standards for HTML, HTTP, and URLs.
1991: Gopher was launched
The first search protocol that examined file contents instead of just file names.
1991: MP3 becomes a standard
1991: The first webcam
At a Cambridge University computer lab a camera was set up to monitor the coffee makers so that students didn’t wait a trip for empty coffee pot.
1993: Mosaic – first graphical web browser for the general public
The first widely downloaded Internet browser, Mosaic, was released in 1993. While Mosaic wasn’t the first web browser, it is considered the first browser to make the Internet easily accessible to non-techies.
1993: Governments join in
Marking the beginning of the .gov and .org domain names.
1995: Commercialization of the internet
The first sale on “Echo Bay” was made that year. Echo Bay later became eBay. Amazon.com also started in 1995.
1998: News will never be the same
The Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky scandal was the first major News story to go viral.
Google revolutionized the way in which people find information on-line.
1998: Napster launched
This opened up the gates to mainstream file-sharing of audio files over the internet.
2000 was the year of the dotcom collapse, resulting in huge losses for legions of investors.
2001: Wikipedia is launched
One of the websites that paved the way for collective web content generation/social media.
2003: Skype is released
2003: MySpace is launched and is HUGE
The CAN-SPAM Act. Was signed. Official name was Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003
2004: Digg brings life to social media
Digg, a social news site, launched on November of 2004, paved the way for sites such as Yahoo! Buzz.
2004: “The” Facebook is launched to college students
2005: YouTube is born
2006: Tweeters begin to witter
The first Twitter message was “just setting up my twttr”.
2007: iPhone was invented
2008: Internet Election
Hillary Clinton used YouTube campaign videos and virtually every candidate had a Facebook page or a Twitter feed, or both.[/vc_column_text]